The sale of four AP1000 reactors to China by Westinghouse in 2007 was announced for $8 billion. As part of an engineering and procurement agreement and a separate technology licensing agreement, “Westinghouse will provide nuclear fuel and essential safety components, as well as information on the design, operation and maintenance of the facilities,” said the law firm Baker Donelson, which represents the nuclear industry. Meanwhile, shortly after the Announcement of the Atoms for Peace program, the United States began using the program to create influence. In 1955, the United States signed its first agreement of 123 to help Turkey do nuclear research. In 1967, 34 agreements were in force in the United States, two-thirds of which were focused exclusively on research. These countries included Israel, Iran, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Venezuela and Vietnam. Some of these early agreements have drawn criticism over the years about their role in unwittingly contributing to the acceleration of nuclear weapons programs around the world. The signing of peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements, also known as 123 agreements, with new countries is essential for nuclear security, non-proliferation and national security. In the spring of 1997, Washington and Beijing discussed efforts to improve relations, including the first official summit between the United States and the People`s Republic of China in the United States in 12 years. Among those discussions was China`s request to implement the agreement. The Clinton administration considered that a presidential certification for implementation was “at the heart” of a state visit by President Jiang Zemin to Washington, D.C. in October 1997 (Jiang was Secretary General of the Communist Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and President of the People`s Republic of China.) However, the Westinghouse agreement gives China the right to export a “large passive facility,” essentially a larger version of the AP1000. According to Baker Donelson, such facilities could be sold to any country except the United States and Japan, subject to U.S.
export control legislation. Westinghouse would have the right to participate in such export projects as long as they have integrated AP1000 technology. If China did not include Westinghouse in such exports, Westinghouse would have to be compensated for each of its technologies used.24 China is currently developing a “large passive facility” as provided for by the Westinghouse Agreement. The first of these reactors, CAP1400, is expected to begin being built in China in 2015 and exports are expected to follow.25 As benefits for the United States.